Dysregulation of Chromatin Organization in Pediatric and Adult Brain Tumours: Oncoepigenomic Contributions to Tumorigenesis and Cancer Stem Cell Properties
The three-dimensional (3D) organization of the genome is a crucial enabler of cell fate, identity, and function. In this review, we will focus on the emerging role of altered 3D genome organization in the etiology of disease, with a special emphasis on brain cancers. We discuss how different genetic alterations can converge to disrupt the epigenome in childhood and adult brain tumours, by causing aberrant DNA methylation and by affecting the amounts and genomic distribution of histone post-translational modifications. We also highlight examples that illustrate how epigenomic alterations have the potential to affect 3D genome architecture in brain tumours. Finally, we will propose the concept of "epigenomic erosion" to explain the transition from stem-like cells to differentiated cells in hierarchically organized brain cancers.
Keywords: 3D genome; brain tumors; cancer; cancer stem cells; cellules souches du cancer; chromatin; chromatine; domaines d’association topologique; génome en 3D; histone variants; nucleosome; nucléosome; pediatric brain tumors; topologically associating domains; tumeurs du cerveau; tumeurs du cerveau pédiatriques; variants de l’histone.