Roles of Chromatin Remodelling and Molecular Heterogeneity in Therapy Resistance in Glioblastoma
AbstractCancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a therapy-resistant reservoir in glioblastoma (GBM). It is now becoming clear that epigenetic and chromatin remodelling programs link the stemlike behaviour of CSCs to their treatment resistance. New evidence indicates that the epigenome of GBM cells is shaped by intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including their genetic makeup, their interactions and communication with other neoplastic and non-neoplastic cells, including immune cells, and their metabolic niche. In this review, we explore how all these factors contribute to epigenomic heterogeneity in a tumour and the selection of therapy-resistant cells. Lastly, we discuss current and emerging experimental platforms aimed at precisely understanding the epigenetic mechanisms of therapy resistance that ultimately lead to tumour relapse. Given the growing arsenal of drugs that target epigenetic enzymes, our review addresses promising preclinical and clinical applications of epidrugs to treat GBM, and possible mechanisms of resistance that need to be overcome.
Keywords: Glioblastoma, cancer stem cells, epigenetic therapy, epidrugs
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